[CML 020735] 【世界初】ボリビアで「パチャママ法（母なる地球の権利法）」が制定される 遺伝子組み換え作物は禁止へ
muchitomi at hotmail.com
2012年 10月 31日 (水) 05:38:58 JST
ボリビアで Law of Mother Earth and Integral Development to Live Well がモラレス大統領によって制定されました。
Pachamama Law enacted and GMO ban in Bolivia!
Tawantinsuyu, Bolivia-Law abolished the large estates and the transgenic grain. (16oct12-Henrry A. Ugarte-eldeber.com.bo-ayi) President Evo Morales enacted Law of Mother Earth and Integral Development to Live Well. Created the Public Defender System and sectors are surprised
President Evo Morales yesterday issued Law of Mother Earth, was an emotional ceremony at the Palacio Quemado
The Law of Mother Earth and Integral Development to Live Well, promulgated by the State President, Evo Morales, provides for the elimination of the concentration of landownership or landlordism and other components in the hands of landowners and companies, and prohibits the introduction, production, use, and release to the commercialization of genetically modified seeds in the country.
In her most outstanding new rule also created the Public Defender System, Climate Justice Fund, which provides that public lands should be distributed mostly women and indigenous peoples, and orders regulating foreign ownership and control of the property, access and use of the components of Mother Earth.
At the time of the enactment, Morales said that the legislation allows for the exploitation of natural resources without damaging the environment. "If there is no life or nature humanity and our proposal with this law is rather how to live in harmony and complementarity (with Mother Earth)," he said.
The president also mentioned that the accumulation of wealth is a factor that "destroys nature," asked why people do not think of accumulating assets to secure their old age.
He noted that to avoid this fear the government must ensure a good income dignity. "The task now is to implement the law, mainly the issue of mining," he said.
For his part, Vice President Alvaro Garcia Linera said: "If you have to produce, to produce, if you get some ore has to be done, but finding the balance between meeting the needs and care of Mother Earth."
With surprise and also with ignorance of the content of the new law leaders yesterday reacted productive sectors.
Demetrio Perez, head of the National Association of Wheat Growers and Oilseeds (ANAP), said he was unaware the general scope of the new standard, but addressed the issue of the ban on GM lamenting the government to hinder the development of production.
But Perez believes that a lot can change around this rule, especially when entering the phase where regulation will necessarily involve all the sectors involved. "If we continue to think so, prohibiting the development, we will lose ground and end up depending on other countries that are advocating for their development, there is the case of Paraguay, that their production is growing thanks to GM," he said.
Meanwhile, the president of the Eastern Agricultural Chamber (CAO), JulioRoda, apologized saying ignore the new law and to be returning from a trip.
The president of the Confederation of Livestock Bolivia (CONGABOL), Mario Hurtado, simply noted that it had taken an important step in the elimination of more instructive to expropriate land to 5,000 hectares by the INRA, but with this new law uncertainty can return.
Suggestive of the standard points.
Sacred. The law considers Mother Earth "sacred" and a dynamic living system composed of indivisible community of all living systems and living beings with a common destiny.
Control. Protecting their rights should be in charge of the Defense of Mother Earth, the prosecution, the Court Agroambiental and all authorities, according to the rule, but not when work is detailed from the first institution.
Justice. The standard also includes the concept of "climate justice" to recognize the right to claim a comprehensive development of the Bolivian people and those affected by climate change.
Resources. It also creates the Plurinational Fund of Mother Earth and a Climate Justice to obtain and administer state and foreign financial resources in order to promote actions to mitigate climate change.
Distribution. It also states that the lands shall be endowed, distributed and redistributed equitably with priority to women, peasant indigenous peoples, Afro-Bolivian communities intercultural and that do not possess.
Regulation. The rule also establishes the regulation and control of foreign ownership in the property, access and use of the components of the Earth Mother and economic activities such as mining and oil fall within the principles of this standard. There will be 120 days for its regulation.
Measures to ensure food.
Productive Revolution law, provision of seeds, agricultural insurance and Agroambiental Observatory is part of the measures promoted by the government to ensure food security in the country, according to the representative of the Vice Ministry of Rural Development, Armando Sanchez.
He highlighted the support given to the productive sector of the country to strengthen and increase the production of agricultural products.
It also explained that the Government since it was announced the treatment of Productive Revolution Act supports small farmers and rural producers' organizations with the implementation of several projects.
One of them said it is implementing a strategic business of seeds, which will assist in the production of quality seeds, and produce fertilizers and organic fertilizers.
For its part, the National Agricultural Insurance prioritize, in case of natural disasters, the attention of small producers who have recurring problems with adverse weather conditions. In the case of agri-environmental observatory, will provide primary information regarding the area of production, costs and demands.
Bolivia Gives Legal Rights To The Earth
Law of Mother Earth sees Bolivia pilot new social and economic model based on protection of and respect for nature.
Bolivia is to become the first country in the world to give nature comprehensive legal rights in an effort to halt climate change and the exploitation of the natural world, and to improve quality of life for the Bolivian people.
Developed by grassroots social groups and agreed by politicians, the Law of Mother Earth recognises the rights of all living things, giving the natural world equal status to human beings.
Once fully approved, the legislation will provide the Earth with rights to: life and regeneration; biodiversity and freedom from genetic modification; pure water; clean air; naturally balanced systems; restoration from the effects of human activity; and freedom from contamination.
The legislation is based on broader principles of living in harmony with the Earth and prioritising the “collective good.” At its heart is an understanding that the Earth is sacred, which arises from the indigenous Andean worldview of ‘Pachamama’ (meaning Mother Earth) as a living being. An initial act outlining the rights – which was passed by Bolivia’s national congress in December 2010 and paves the way for the full legislation – defines Mother Earth as a dynamic and “indivisible community of all living systems and living organisms, interrelated, interdependent and complementary, which share a common destiny.”
Bolivia’s government will be legally bound to prioritise the wellbeing of its citizens and the natural world by developing policies that promote sustainability and control industry. The economy must operate within the limits of nature and the country is to work towards energy and food sovereignty while adopting renewable energy technologies and increasing energy efficiency.Preventing climate change is a key objective of the law, which includes protecting the lives of future generations. The government is requesting that rich countries help Bolivia adapt to the effects of climate change in recognition of the environmental debt they owe for their high carbon emissions. Bolivia is “particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change,” according to an Oxfam report in 2009, with increasing drought, melting glaciers and flooding.
On the international stage, the government will have a legal duty to promote the uptake of rights for Mother Earth, while also advocating peace and the elimination of all nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Following a change in Bolivia’s constitution in 2009, the law is part of a complete overhaul of the legal system. It represents a shift away from the western development model to a more holistic vision, based on the indigenous concept of Vivir Bien (to live well).
The proposal for the law states: “Living Well means adopting forms of consumption, behaviour and and conduct that are not degrading to nature. It requires an ethical and spiritual relationship with life. Living Well proposes the complete fulfilment of life and collective happiness.”
Unity Pact, an umbrella group for five Bolivian social movements, prepared the draft law. They represent over 3m people and all of the country’s 36 indigenous groups, the majority of whom are smallscale farmers with many still living on their ancestral lands. The bill protects their livelihoods and diverse cultures from the impacts of industry.
Undarico Pinto, a leader of the social movement Confederación Sindical Única de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia, said: “It will make industry more transparent. It will allow people to regulate industry at national, regional and local levels.”Signifying a fundamental shift away from exploitation of nature, the draft law referrers to mineral resources as “blessings” and states that Mother Earth, “is sacred, fertile and the source of life that feeds and cares for all living beings in her womb. She is in permanent balance, harmony and communication with the cosmos.”
A Ministry of Mother Earth is to be established to promote the new rights and ensure they are complied with. But with its economy currently dependent on exports of natural resources, earning nearly a third of its foreign currency – around £300m a year – from mining companies, Bolivia will need to balance its new obligations against the demands of industry.
Bolivia Rain forest
The full law is expected to pass within the next few months and is unlikely to face any significant opposition because the ruling party, the Movement Towards Socialism, has a considerable majority in parliament. Its leader, President Evo Morales, voiced a commitment to the initiative at the World People’s Conference on Climate change, held in Bolivia in April 2010.
The Law of Mother Earth includes the following:
The right to maintain the integrity of life and natural processes.
The right to not have cellular structure modified or genetically altered.
The right to continue vital cycles and processes free from human alteration.
The right to pure water.
The right to clean air.
The right to balance, to be at equilibrium.
The right to be free of toxic and radioactive pollution.
The right to not be affected by mega-infrastructure and development projects that affect the balance of ecosystems and the local inhabitant communities.
The law also promotes “harmony” and “peace” and “the elimination of all nuclear, chemical, biological” weapons.